Tuesday, August 25, 2020
On June 20, 1675, Metacomet, otherwise called Philip by the early American pilgrim, drove a progression of assaults on pioneer settlements that went on for over a year. These assaults got known as Ã¢â¬Å"King Philips War.Ã¢â¬ It was an edgy endeavor by the Natives to hold their property as their way of life and assets dwindled before them. Mary Rowlandson, an acclaimed casualty of these Indian assaults, relates her eleven-week imprisonment in her distributed book, A Narrative of the Captivity and Restoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson. The book depicts her experience as a hostage of the Wampanoags in extraordinary detail, and consolidates high experience, chivalry, and excellent devotion, which made it a well known piece in the seventeenth century. All through the story Mary Rowlandson depicts her aptitudes as an essayist with the outline of her character. In her imprisonment, Mary Rowland understands that life is short and nothing is sure. The regular subject of vulnerability instructs Rowlandson that she can take nothing for ground. In a solitary day the appearing soundness of life vanishes without notice as depicted in the initial scene when the town of Lancaster is burned to the ground and she is isolated from her two senior youngsters. Rowlandson changes from a spouse of a well off clergyman with three kids to a hostage detainee with a solitary injured little girl in one day. Another occurrence of vulnerability is between The Twelfth Remove, where she is affirmed by her lord to be offered to her significant other, yet the following day in The Thirteenth Remove she composes, Ã¢â¬Å"instead of going toward the Bay, which was that I wanted, I should go with them five or six miles down the waterway into the powerful shrubbery of brush; where we home very nearly a fortnight (271).Ã¢â¬ Notwithstanding the vulnerability nothing in her imprisonment was reliable either. One day the Indians treat her consciously, while the following day they give her no food. This irregularity can be seen between The Eighth Remove and The Ninth Remove. In The Eighth Remove, Rowlandson is approached to make different articles of clothing as a byproduct of a pushing and distinctive typesÃ¢ foods; be that as it may, in The Ninth Remove, Rowland was approached to make a shirt, however gets nothing consequently (267-268). The irregularity originates from the questionable future, which plants dread in RowlandsonÃ¢â¬â¢s character. The main light she can find in her dim bondage is the light of her God. As a Puritan, Rowlandson accepts that GodÃ¢â¬â¢s will shapes the occasions throughout her life, and that every occasion fills a need. The basic Puritan conviction that people must choose between limited options, however to acknowledge GodÃ¢â¬â¢s will and comprehend it is depicted all through her story. This faith in God produces estimations of backbone and assurance Rowlandson uses to endure the eleven-week bondage. This is can be found in The Second Remove as she is going to fall from exhaustion and injury, Ã¢â¬Å"but the Lord restored my quality still, and conveyed me along, that I may see a greater amount of his capacity (260).Ã¢â¬ Rowlandson regularly makes matches between her own circumstance and scriptural sections about the Israelites on the grounds that the Puritans thought they were the relatives of the Israelites in the new world. This is depicted in the end scene when Rowlandson is brought together with her family and she cites Moses addressing the Israelites, Ã¢â¬ stand still and see the salvation of the Lord (288).Ã¢â¬ Moses said this to the Israelites at their appearance to the guarantee land following forty days of meandering in the desert. Rowlandson thinks about her imprisonment to the forty days in the desert, and her get-together with her family to the landing in the guarantee land. In RowlandsonÃ¢â¬â¢s bondage, her point of view of the Native Indians develops from viciousness to parts of respectfulness. The additional time she went through with the Natives the more relations she made with them that come full circle into regard and thankfulness for their way of life. At first Rowlandson considered the Natives Ã¢â¬Å"barbarous creaturesÃ¢â¬ who Ã¢â¬Å"made the spot an exuberant likeness of hellÃ¢â¬ after the consuming of Lancaster (259). Subsequently she estimates the Natives as vicious savages. She was likewise sickened with the different nourishments they ate, for example, ground nuts, tree husk, and pony liver; in any case, following three weeks of starvation she gained a preference for the sporadic food sources. This is portrayed in The Fifth Remove, Ã¢â¬Å"but the third weekÃ¢â¬ ¦ I could starve and kick the bucket before I could eat such things, yet they were sweet and exquisite as I would prefer (265).Ã¢â¬ This communicates a minor difference in heart RowlandsonÃ¢ has for the Natives as she winds up eating similar nourishments and appreciating them. Notwithstanding the obtained taste of the Native nourishments, more likenesses become clear, for example, Ã¢â¬Å"praying IndiansÃ¢â¬ who guarantee to have changed over to Christianity and a few occurrences where the Natives are wearing colonistsÃ¢â¬â¢ garments (279). The once particular distinction in consideration and viciousness gets obscured in the likenesses Rowland sees between the pilgrim and the Natives. Rowlandson investigates the frightful delay most pioneers feel even with the new world. The new world is the obscure situations outside the states, chiefly toward the west. This incorporates the backwoods and lush regions that are related with the Natives. It is the place the Natives live, where they take their hostages, and a position of obscure to the settler, which made it frightful. Rowlandson portrayed it as a position of Ã¢â¬Å"deep dungeonÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"high and steep slope (266).Ã¢â¬ In RowlandsonÃ¢â¬â¢s imprisonment, she is driven into the timberland where her experience brings her further away from human advancement. Her and different prisoners, for example, Robert Pepper, increase reasonable information about the normal world during their time went through with the Indians. In spite of the fact that this information is critical to her endurance, it brings her uneasiness and blame since she feels as if she is being pushed from development. The portrayed portrayal of Mary Rowlandson in her distributed book, A Narrative of the Captivity and Restoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson, portrays the manner in which Puritans moved toward existence with strict ideas and convictions, however the impact of the Native culture is the thing that isolates her work as the primary imprisonment account. In her bondage she loses her unique physiological security through eleven weeks of vulnerability and irregularity. This powers her to think outside her Puritan philosophy into the new universe of various situations and encounters. Her new encounters permit her to develop and value the distinctions of the new world, and in her appearance Rowlandson shuts the hole between the Natives and Puritans by distinguishing the similitudes between the two societies.
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Andrew Marvells sonnet To His Coy Mistress Essay In this article I will investigate Andrew Marvells sonnet, To His Coy Mistress, with Elizabeth Barrett Brownings piece, How Do I Love Thee? Andrew Marvells sonnet is about a more seasoned man attempting convince a more youthful ladies to carpe diem (hold onto the day), so as to have intercourse to her, by utilizing praises and honeyed words, Vaster than domains, and ought to go to praise.'(Stanza 1, line 12) Also, Elizabeth Barrett Brownings work is about a female who is communicating her emotions towards a male. Based on the sonnet, the lady is profoundly enamored with the man from an otherworldly perspective, I love thee to the profundity and expansiveness and tallness, my spirit can reach. (Line 2-3) To His Coy Mistress is a nearly long sonnet of 46 lines, which is separated into three refrains, speaking to various pieces of the contention for which he is attempting to convince her to lay down with him. In the primary verse, the man compliments the ladies by utilizing self important symbolism and overstatement. He says that her demureness would be of no outcome had we yet world enough and course of events (1) and afterward follows with more detail in the accompanying refrains. The more established man additionally shows how intrigued he is by communicating the extent of his sentiments, by clarifying how he would, love you ten years before the flood (Line 8), regardless of whether his affection were to stay lonely, till the discussion of the Jews.'(Line 10) what's more he at that point depicts to what extent he would be set up to value every last bit of her physical qualities, 200 to love each bosom, But thirty thousand to the rest.'(Line 15-16) On one hand, he is attempting to demonstrate to the young ladies the amount he needs her; then again she could see his words in the incorrect manner, perhaps he simply needs to lay down with her? You could contend this is caricaturizing the lords court, in light of the fact that despite the fact that he is complimenting her, it is unseemly to expect that he would be permitted to take a gander at her for this extensive stretch of time. In the subsequent verse, he proceeds to us the self important symbolism from the main refrain, however presents a need to keep moving. At the point when he says, however in the absolute first line, the crowd understands that there will be a move in center. He presently says that he hears times winged chariot hustling near.'(Line 22) From this point, his symbolism turns out to be progressively frantic. He attempts to stun the ladies into laying down with him, by discussing her hesitance, and on the off chance that she continues on in life that way, she risks just wormstrying that since a long time ago saved virginity.'(Line 27-28) He says that his demeanor will go to clean and into cinders all my lust.'(Line 30) This sentence makes the crowd increasingly mindful of his real goals by saying the word desire as opposed to cherish, causing us to accept that he has sold out his actual thought processes, and made a mistake before the lady, he is making out he adores. In the last verse of To His Coy Mistress, it sees him nearly request that they make sport (love). The symbolism on this verse turns out to be increasingly suggestive, and may have more than one understanding. Let us roll.up into one ball, and tear our pleasuresthrough the iron entryways of life.'(Line 41 and 44) Rolling up into a ball could speak to two individuals having intercourse together or a gun ball which will crush down, the iron doors of life. These entryways could speak to the womans celibacy belt or societys shows which would dislike an extramarital issue. The last two lines are also questionable. The two of them connect to lines from the subsequent verse. In this way, through we can't make our sun, stop, yet we will make him run (Line 45 46), proposes that they should benefit as much as possible from their time they are spending together, and consider a kid (child). Elizabeth Barrett Brownings sonnet, How would I love thee presents a significant difference to Andrew Marvells sonnet. Its symbolism is modest, and individual. It is a declaration of profound love and commitment starting with one individual then onto the next. The reason for the sonnet is to measure the elements of her adoration and toward the start of the sonnet, it is exceptionally obvious to the crowd that this lady is profoundly enamored with her accomplice By beginning with the line, How would I love thee? Let me check the ways'(Line 1) she starts to contrast her adoration with religion and feelings as opposed to physical qualities, I love thee openly, as men take a stab at right. (Line 7) The symbolism she uses to as far as anyone knows measure this affection is reminiscent of vastness, and an adoration which has no limits, much after the spirit is liberated from the physical body, I will yet cherish thee in the afterlife. (Line 14) Productive depictions are constantly utilized in this sonnet, contrasted with Andrew Marvells, which additionally portrays the negative issues. Other than Brownings sonnet having a sentimental significance, you could address why the lady needs to demonstrate her affection for her accomplice, since she persistently notices and rehashes, I love thee in the vast majority of her sentences. She could be without a doubt checking the manners in which she adores her accomplice, anyway perhaps her accomplice needs consoling of her adoration for him. One could contend that, Barrett Browning picked the piece structure for this sonnet, for the motivations behind difference; to take something which is as far as anyone knows infinitive (her adoration) and spot it in a limited and confined structure (work). On the other hand, individuals could think distinctive in light of the fact that there are such exacting principles overseeing piece composing, (for example 10 syllables for each line, 14 lines and so forth) and individuals may address why she picked such an inflexible organization, for something which she feels most unequivocally about. By and large, the two sonnets are contrary energies, however they are both worried about the idea of time, human life and love. Toward the finish of the sonnet, searing says, if god pick, I will cherish thee better after death,'(Line 13-14) demonstrating that considerably after she kicks the bucket, her adoration for this man will keep on developing, cherishing him forever. To His Coy Mistress, and How Do I Love Thee have numerous connections with one another. For instance; The two sonnets are about affection; yet speak to various types of adoration. Andrew Marvells sonnet is about desire and sexual delight, while Elizabeth Barrett Brownings sonnet is about genuine romance and reliability. The poem is composed from a womens perspective, where she communicates her genuine romance for her better half. The other sonnet is composed from a develop keeps an eye on perspective, and represemts his desire for a more youthful ladies. This sonnet is an intricate visit up line to introduce a consistent contention so as to convince her to have intercourse to him. This can show how the hugeness of a sonnet can vary in view of the century it has been written in. To his hesitant escort, was written during the 1600s while How would I love thee was written during the 1800s. The social distinction between these two periods, is the composing style, as during the 1600s individuals were keen on making astute contentions, and were increasingly keen on expounding on sex, desire and enthusiasm. While during the 1800s, the sonnets composed had all the more evident significance, with a more profound, progressively sentimental inclination. Furthermore, into cinders all my desire, contrasted with, How would I love theeLet me tally the ways. Many love sonnets are written in a customary configuration, with exacting guidelines. Elizabeth Barrett Browning took the test to expound on something which should have no restrictions (love) into something which is limited (work). Then again Andrew Marvells sonnet is totally based around carpe diem, in a non-conventional configuration, with no severe guidelines or rules. This can influence the symbolism utilized as one has no impediment to the measure of syllables, lines or refrains, while different has a confined organization leaving a specific measure of expressions which can be utilized. Plainly this implies there are various kinds of symbolism utilized between the two sonnets since, How would I love thee utilizes theoretical and enthusiastic symbolism, which will in general be exceptionally close to home and humble. Sometimes you can't exactly put a finger on what she is portraying. I love thee to the degree of consistently, most very close by sun and candlelight. (Line 5-6) To His Coy Mistress, will in general utilize conspicuous exaggeration and pompous symbolism. He utilizes huge exaggerated, shabby pictures, by utilizing expressions, for example, times winged chariot, moment flames and iron doors of life. You can picture what the man is depicting; however then again, you can tell that he may be misdirecting the crowd to cause them to accept that he is enamored with this lady. All through the entire of my article, I have reached the resolution, that the two sonnets have numerous correlations, similitudes and contrasts. The two of them depict a type of affection between two individuals. As I would like to think, the sonnet I incline toward is, To his shy escort, since it had a greater amount of an impact on me, in light of the language utilized. The man appears to be extremely urgent, however then again with awesome mystique. The symbolism utilized is compelling, as I could relate and envision what he is portraying. Just as keeping the crowd charmed on what the ladies will do straightaway, he leaves the completion on a bluff holder, by not telling on an official choice the ladies makes! In any case, I don't despise the sonnet, How would I love thee in light of the fact that it has suitable language for the idea she is depicting. I simply think it is fairly monotonous depicting just the idealistic characteristics about an individual, for the explanation that everyone has shortcomings and negative qualities. Besides, I didnt think that its remarkable or particular from other love sonnets, since the language and symbolism was fundamentally the same as.
Friday, August 7, 2020
Discovering Product Design through Photography Although this blog probably wouldve been more appropriately posted at the beginning of the year, I think the photographs that our freshmen took deserve to be shared with the blogosphere! Discover Product Design is a freshman preorientation program (FPOP) at MIT, which I participated in as a freshman and now help coordinate! During the short five day program, we introduce the freshman to the world of product design through a variety of interactive lectures, awesome design projects, and some visits to firms like Eleven, THE MEME, and even a hardware accelerator called Bolt. They also get a chance to explore the city of Boston and learn about resources on campus where they can build things themselves! Id definitely share more details about the program on the blog, but I dont want to ruin it for all you future prefrosh out there who might take the program when you come here! However, you can get a better idea of what we do in the program by taking a look at all the students photos online here! Great job DPD 2013 students! Thanks for making it our best year yet :)
Saturday, May 23, 2020
September 11, 2001. After terrorists hijacked four American airliners, toppling the World Trade Center in New York and damaging the Pentagon just outside Washington, rhetoric in various circles of the West among authors, theorists, and pundits centered around a number of interesting topics. The nature of evil has become a topic over which much debate and rhetoric has ensued. Some have used it as a means by which they can explain these actions, whereas others see it as an obstacle to a proper explanation. Even others see it as false, but a necessary falsehood for the war effort. Furthermore, the debate over if, or the extent to which, United States and Western foreign policy contributed to these attacks has also stirred passions onÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Reverend Graham is a popular Protestant and generally conservative figure. He said during the memorial service for the victims of September 11: Ã¢â¬Å"But how do we understand something like this? Why does God allow evil like this to take place? Perhaps that is what you are asking now. You may even be angry at God. I want to assure you that God understands these feelings that you may haveÃ¢â¬ (Graham). For Graham, the use of the term evil is not intended to help Americans understand the actions. Rather, he says, Ã¢â¬Å"We are reminded of the mystery and reality of evil.Ã¢â¬ I have been asked hundreds of times in my life why God allows tragedy and suffering. I have to confess that I really do not know the answer totally, even to my own satisfaction. I have to accept, by faith, that God is sovereign, and HeÃ¢â¬â¢s a God of love and mercy and compassion in the midst of suffering. The Bible says that God is not the author of evil. It speaks of evil as a Ã¢â¬Å"mystery.Ã¢â¬ In 2 Thessalonians 2:7 it talks about the mystery of iniquity. The Old Testament prophet Jeremiah said, Ã¢â¬Å"The heart is deceitful above all things and beyond cure. Who can understand it?Ã¢â¬ He asked that question, Ã¢â¬Å"Who can understand it?Ã¢â¬ And thatÃ¢â¬â¢s one reason we each need God in our lives. Reverend GrahamÃ¢â¬â¢s use of rhetoric is a tactic employed frequently by evangelists and those speaking from a Christian discourse. His citation of the Second Epistle to the Thessalonians is particularly interesting. In theShow MoreRelatedThe Saturn Myth As A Type Of Meta Structure740 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages It may be possible, if the monstrous rhetoric could be traced to its origin, to establish a type of meta-structure by which to identify uses of language and metaphor which rely on the monstrous to create difference or marginality. A brief look into the European origins of cannibalism, not as a practice but as a metaphorical construction, leads back to the Saturn myth. Again, Zika notes the use of the Saturn myth as the Ã¢â¬Å"explicit basis for [the] association between witch and cannibal,Ã¢â¬ and notesRead More George W. BushÃ¢â¬â¢s Language Comprising the War on Terror Essay5251 Words Ã |Ã 22 Pagesrepresentatives or senators. Since the president receives more pub lic attention than any other individual in government, it seems natural to analyze presidential rhetoric. However, why exactly should we examine presidential rhetoric? Are there not other ways to examine a presidentÃ¢â¬â¢s goals and aspirations? One could examine the implemented policies that the president supports. However, one cannot examine the presidentÃ¢â¬â¢s support for a policy without scrutinizing the language and rhetoric he uses to expressRead MoreThe Future Of Rhetoric Is Not Changed Much Since The Years Of Aristotle3176 Words Ã |Ã 13 PagesTHE FUTURE OF RHETORIC IN OUR ELECTRONIC AGE Name: Institution: Course: Professor: Date: Abstract Rhetoric has not changed much since the years of Aristotle. However, the application of concept of rhetoric appears to have undergone dynamic transformations as new technologies come into the market. Rhetoric is employed in all spheres and levels of life in conveying information especially in the world of business and politics. For many years, rhetoric has been used to convince and persuadeRead MoreAmerican Neo Orientalism And The Justification For The War On Terror 1426 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMr. Shaw 22 February 2016 Ex Oriente Lux: American neo-Orientalism and the Justification for the Ã¢â¬ËWar on TerrorÃ¢â¬â¢ The September 11, 2001, attacks on the World Trade Centre and the Pentagon fundamentally changed the dynamic of American identity threatening itÃ¢â¬â¢s hegemony and creating a space of insecurity thus necessitating a reassertion of state authority. 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The wicked vice of racial discrimination towards African Americans has, over the course of almost six centuries, indelibly tainted social, economic and cultural relations between those of all racial profiles in the Ã¢â¬Å"Land of the FreeÃ¢â¬ . Historically speaking, the African American experience is imbued in pain and suffering for centuries of malfeasanceRead MoreSocial Media and Social Protest2615 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagestowards a protest movement. Framing theory Media influences how politics is framed and perceived and set the terms of action for politicians, stakeholders, and other actors in public discourse. Apart from news selection, the framing of environmental news has an equally important role. Iyengar (1993: 367) argues that itÃ¢â¬â¢s an Ã¢â¬Å"episodicÃ¢â¬ news framing different from Ã¢â¬Å"thematicÃ¢â¬ coverage that places related events in some general context. 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Media, regulators, pundits and observers characterized the meltdown as the most devastating economic crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s. Many blamed theRead MoreInternational Media s Coverage Of An Event Essay3208 Words Ã |Ã 13 Pagesthe character of the news provided to us. An adequate understanding of this argument requires full understanding surrounding the event itself. Though even the most objective variant of the crisis is contested, journalists and officials alike have since attempted to provide a general account of what likely occurred at the Sydney Lindt Chocolate cafÃ © that day (as informed by both witnesses and hostages). At 9.44am on 15-16 December 2014, a lone Islamic gunman, later identified as Man Haron Monis, held
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
Bisecting Bipolar Disorder Introduction and Background Overview 3.9% of adults in the United States are suffering from bipolar disorder as of 2014 according to the National Institute of Mental Health (Jann, 2014). Although rare, it is still a prevalent disease in the realm of mental health and requires special attention from healthcare providers. Bipolar disorder is a lifelong condition described by repeated manic or depressive episodes. Furthermore, due to the extreme mood swings and emotional range bipolar disorder exhibits, it can cause impaired functioning, interrupt quality of life, and affect the overall health of a patient (Jann, 2014). Two main types of bipolar disorder exist, simply called type I and type II. Type I causes more severe episodes of mania, which often require hospitalization, significant functional impairment, as well as psychosis. On the other hand, bipolar II deals with more frequent depressive states, but does include hypomania episodes, but are not as intense as a full manic episode (Mayo Clinic, 2015). Despite the dif ferences, Dr. Michael Jann (2014) states, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦patients with bipolar disorder of either type experience symptomatic depression at least 3 times more frequently than symptomatic mania or hypomaniaÃ¢â¬ (p. 489). Still, there are several other types and related disorders to depression, but type I and type II seem to be most prevalent and will be what this paper is based upon (Mayo Clinic, 2015). Regardless of the rarity of the disease, it hasShow MoreRelatedSymptoms And Symptoms Of Bipolar Disorder706 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesBipolar disorder is a serious mental illness that is characterized by changes in mood. It can lead to risky behavior, damage relationships and careers, and even suicidal outcomes if itÃ¢â¬â¢s not treated. 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Around 15 percentRead MoreSymptoms And Symptoms Of Bipolar Disorder1285 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesBipolar Disorder This paper will contain information on what bipolar disorder in early and late adolescence is, causes and symptoms, medical along with therapeutic interventions and how important it really is to get treatment. Bipolar disorder is a disease that affects approximately 2.6% Americans in the United States in a given year. There is limited data on the rate of bipolar in adolescents, although, it does tend to affect older teens more often and may be related to substance abuse. A lot
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
string(121) " months of solid gains, but the decline is probably interim in nature given the strengthening numbers in the Job market\." This will be followed by a personal economic outlook or the remainder of 2014. Current State of U. S Economy: A. We will write a custom essay sample on Tracking the U.S Economy or any similar topic only for you Order Now Gross Domestic Product (GAP) According to the figures illustrated in the above graph prepared by the Bureau of Economic Analysis (SEA), an agency of the Commerce Department, U. S. Real gross domestic product contracted sharply at an annual rate of 1. 0 percent in IQ 2014 compared to 2. 6 percent in the previous quarter. This marked the first decline in economic growth since January 2011, a period of three years. The drop in GAP growth comes as a revision, down from the BEAKÃ¢â¬â¢S original estimate released last April which showed an increase of 0. 1 percent. The BEA announces early estimates based on incomplete and partial data to provide a general picture of economic activity. These estimates are usually revised, with a second and third estimate being released as more data is acquired. The third and last revision for IQ 2014 is due to be released on June 25th and it remains to be seen how the GAP numbers will be affected. So why did the numbers decline so drastically? Many economists blame the anemic growth due to diminished business inventories, and the abnormally, harsh winter the country experienced during the beginning of the year, however, not everyone agrees. Forbes quotes Steve Blitz, chief economist at ITS Investment Research who states, Ã¢â¬Å"Looking through the rest of the report, we see the cold hand of winter, although I am not sure to what extent the cold in the Midwest caused the level of exports to drop by $40. 5 billion while imports only dropped $8. 8 billion. Surely the supply chains werenÃ¢â¬â¢t frozen in only one direction. Despite the historically, cold weather, there is more to the unexpected, weak performance of the battered U. S economy. Numerous components of the GAP played a hand in causing the decline in economic growth, including a decrease in exports, lack of business investments and decreased government spending. Reduction in real exports (real imports, which are a subtracted in the GAP calculation declined as well ), accounted for a significant portion of the economic decline, followed by a decrease in inventory investments, non residential fixed investments, residential investments and a cutback in state and local government spending. The GAP Ã¢â¬Ës only supporter so far this year came in the form of increased real personal consumer expenditures, which grew from 2. 1 percent from the previous estimate of 2. 0 percent, mainly reflecting sharp increases in services and light increases in other areas. The BEA states, Ã¢â¬Å"The downturn in the percent change in real GAP, primarily reflected a downturn in exports, a larger decrease in private inventory investment, and downturns in nonresidential fixed investment and in state and local government spending that were partly offset by an upturn in federal government spendingÃ¢â¬ (2014). The table below, prepared by the BEA, shows precisely which components of GAP rose and tumbled in IQ 2014. B. Foreign Trade (Exports Imports) According to records maintained by the U. S Census Bureau and the BEA, exports in April of $193. 3 billion and imports of $240. Billion resulted in a trade deficit of $47. 2 billion, up from $44. 2 billion in March. The April exports were $0. 3 billion less than March exports of $193. 7 billion, but imports were $2. 7 billion more than March imports of $237. 8 billion. The chart produced by the BEA below displays the U. S. International trade in goods and services in a period of two years, from April 2012 to April 2014. Goods deficit in April increased by $3. 3 billion from March to $65. 8 billion and services surplus increased by $0. 2 billion from March to $18. 6 billion. Exports of goods decreased $0. 6 billion to $135. Billion, but imports however increased by $2. 7 billion to $200. 9 billion. Services exports increased by $0. 3 billion to $58. 2 billion and imports followed suit increasing by $0. 1 billion to $39. 7 billion. From April 2013 to April 2014, the goods and services deficit has increased by $6. Billion. Imports in that time period were up by 5. 4 percent or, $12. 4 billion and exports were up by 3. 0 percent, or $5. 6 billion. C. Gross Private Domestic Investments (Business Investment) Gross private domestic investment is a vital component of GAP because it gives us an idea of future productive capacity. It accounts for approximately 14 percent of our GAP and is considered to be the least stable component. The BEA defines gross private domestic investment as private fixed investment and change in private inventories. It is measured without a deduction for consumption of fixed capital and includes replacements and addition to the capital stock, but excludes investment by U. S. Residents in other countries, hence the domestic. The BEA divides business investments into to sub-categories, fixed nonresidential investment, residential investment and business inventories. In short, gross private domestic investment is n aggregate component of expenditures and includes fixed investments (nonresidential and residential) and change in private inventories. In the above graph from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLESS), the analysis depicts gross private domestic investment data with future projections as far as 2022. The growth rate for the time period of 2002 to 2012 is 0. 6 percent, with negative annual growth rates for all categories of fixed residential structures. However, the annual growth rate in business inventories in this same time period increased from the last decade from -3. 3 percent to 12. 9 percent. They project business inventories to increase by 2022 at an average annual rate of 0. 6 percent. D. Consumer Spending The Consumer Confidence Index increased slightly in May. The index is currently at 83. 0, up from 81. 7 Just last month in April. The BEA recently reported that consumer spending increased to 10914. 40 billion in IQ 2014, up from 10831. 50 billion in Q 2013. U. S. Consumer spending fell for the first time in a year in April 2014 after two months of solid gains, but the decline is probably interim in nature given the strengthening numbers in the Job market. You read "Tracking the U.S Economy" in category "Papers" The drop followed a revised 1. Percent increase in March that was the largest gain since August 2009. Real disposable personal income (DIP) remained steady throughout IQ 2014 with a slight decreases in both April and May. E. Unemployment Rate As reported by the BullÃ¢â¬â¢s latest economic news release, total nonfat payroll employment increased by 217,000 in May. The increase was due largely to professional and business services, health care and social assistance, leisure and hospitality, transportation and warehousing and temporary services. Employment in other sectors such as manufacturing, mining and logging, construction, wholesale ND retail trade, information and financial services, and government remained steady. The unemployment rate remained unchanged at 6. 3 percent. In May, following a decline of 0. 4 percent in April. The number of unemployed persons remained the same in May at 9. 8 million, a decrease of 1. 9 million over the last year. Over the previous year, nonfat payroll employment averaged approximately 197,000 a month. The long term unemployed numbers remained steady at 3. 4 million and accounted for 34. 6 percent of the unemployed. That number has declined by almost a million workers, as the economy continues to gradually recover ND improve. The graph below by the BEA shows the inclines and declines of the unemployment rate since 1990. Updated unemployment figures and charts for June 2014 will be released on July 3, 2014. F. Inflation Rate (ICP) The most recent release by the BLESS states that the ICP for all urban consumers (ICP-U) increased by 0. 3 percent in April on a seasonally adjusted basis. Over the past year, the all items index increased by 2. 0 percent before seasonal adjustment. Gasoline, shelter, and food indexes all rose in April and so did all items less food and energy. The consumer price index for May will be released on June 17, 2014. G. Government Spending: Fiscal and Monetary Policies According to the data reported by the BEA, current government expenditures exceeded receipts and caused a net government saving of -966. Billion during first quarter of 2014; an increase from Q 2013. Net lending or net borrowing which is an alternative measure of the government fiscal position was -1036. 5 billion, increasing from -968. 7 Q 2013. U. S. Economic Outlook: Remainder 2014 Coming off the harshest winter weÃ¢â¬â¢ve experienced in quite some time, the economy is expected to rebound and contin ue improving its upward growth in the remainder of 2014. The economy is expected to expand 2. 4 percent with the recovery of the housing market and business investments. Government consumption is expected to slow economic growth this year for the fourth straight year in a row. Consumer spending will remain in the 2 percent range, but itÃ¢â¬â¢s possible that it might increase due to the increase in disposable personal income. This is assuming consumer confidence increases as the year passes. Employment is expected to continue its growth of 180,000-190,000 Jobs gained monthly similar to the previous two years. Structural unemployment will continue to be an issue as most Jobs created will be in he food service and retail industries. Small businesses are expected to gain confidence and provide support to the economic growth in 2014 with a key source of funding thatÃ¢â¬â¢s been missing since the recession; home equity. The increase in home values over the previous year and the ongoing housing recovery is expected to support small businesses. The recovering housing market will play a role in GAP growth as home values continue to rise fueling construction activity leading to an accelerated pace in residential investment. Accelerated business investment will gain approximately 2. 5 percent to around 4. Percent in the following quarters; driven by hefty gains in nonresidential structures and slight increases in equipment and software expenditures. Growing demand for industrial space will support the increase in business investments. Inflation will rise modestly from the lows of 2013 but will remain humble. Consumer prices will rise as producer prices rise due to global and domestic demand. Net exports will play a leading role and is expected to add to the overall GAP growth. Economists predict a 6. 6 percent rate of growth, along with the support of the oil boom to increase the pace of export activity. U. S. Economic Personal Outlook: 2014 From the extensive research IÃ¢â¬â¢ve done on this topic, my personal outlook on the economy for 2014 in one word, subpart. I expect GAP to grow slightly over the year due to more than one component. Consumer spending is a strong candidate to increase most simply because disposable income is increasing. I understand that we just recently went through a recession and money conservation would be wise, but weÃ¢â¬â¢re a consumer nation and a consumer based culture, therefore I expect personal consumer expenditures to rise. The winter that affected the nation during the ginning of the year slowed growth but in March, when the weather started to lift consumer expenditures skyrocketed. Personally, it would seem as if consumer confidence is on the rise and the data supports my theory. I believe the increasing home values will embolden consumers and business owners alike and add to economic growth, with businesses leading the way. I feel as if consumers arenÃ¢â¬â¢t ready to make such a big financial commitment such as a mortgage and the ones willing to take risks will be the entrepreneurs or the business owners, so I expect to see growth in business investments. Residential investments will continue to improve as confidence is restored in the housing market allowing consumers to purchase rental properties to supplement or increase their income. Non residential investments will increase as well as values rise due to demand but IÃ¢â¬â¢m not quite sure how strong this demand will be. Being the consumer culture we are, I expect us to import more than we export like we have for over a two decades now, however, the strengthening oil and gas sector in the country will gain momentum, gradually relieving us of our oil dependency on OPEC nations in the years to come, decreasing our imports of foreign oil. Economic growth in 2014 may be slow, but itÃ¢â¬â¢s much better compared to where we were as a nation a couple of years ago. How to cite Tracking the U.S Economy, Papers
Friday, May 1, 2020
Question: Discuss about theVicarious Liability In The Agency Context. Answer: Issue An advice is furnished to the CEO of Golf Club Resort (company) whether the company is required to pay the bill to Willow Landscaping? Law The relationship of an employer-employee or master-servant is very crucial mainly because it decides whether the employer or the master can be held accountable for the actions of his employee or servant. In (NMFM Property Pty Ltd v Citibank Ltd (No 10), thelaw of agency is defined and it is held by the court that when two people are in the relationship of principal/master/employer and agent/servant/employee and such employee is acting on the directions and under the control of the employer then any liability arising from such an action will fall upon the principal. Thelaw of agency is based on the concept of vicarious liability wherein the employer is accountable for his employees actions Scott v Davis. The only requirement to make the employer liable is that the employee is totally functioning within the powers that are delegated to him. Thus, to make a person an agent of the principal, the main requirements are: The employee is within the services of the employer; The actions of the employee is directed and guided by the employer; The actions which are carried out by the employee are delegated to him by the employer. Now, the employer can gave power to his employee by three means. The same are: Actual express authority An actual express authority is a kind of delegation wherein the principal intentionally conveys powers to his employees so that the employee can carry out work on his behalf. This kind of delegation is possible when the principal either by way of agreement or by actions or verbally grants authority to the agent. Actual implied authority An actual implied authority is the authority for which the principal does not have to make any actual efforts. But, when any tasks are allotted to the agent then the power that is coupled with such tasks so that the agent can perform such tasks adequately is an implied authority. For example, to take decisions when the principal cannot be reach at and the decisions is for the benefit of the principal, to act for the best interest of the principal etc. Ostensible authority The ostensible authority is the third kind of authority wherein the power to take actions on behalf of the principal is not carried out under the any actual or implied authority, but, this authority is gained by the agent because of a representation that is made by the principal. When the principal makes a depiction in front of an outsider to make an outsider believe that a specific person is the authorized representative of the principal then an ostensible authority is granted to such agent. When an outsider under such pretext of ostensible authority enters into a contract with the agent, then, the principal cannot deny the authority on the part of the agent and is bound by the transactions that are entered. However, if the outsider is aware of the defect in the authority, then, he cannot bound the principal by the actions of the agent. The abovelaw is now applied to the facts of the case. Application Noora Norra Golf Club Resort is owned by Gabba Pty Ltd (company). Ricardo is working for the company. Recently there is financial crunch so the Chief Executive officer of the company has directed Ricardo that he is only authorized to enter into contract on the company behalf provided the value of the contract should not exceed $ 10,000. The situation reveal that the Chief Executive Officer has by words of mouth has given a power to Ricardo that he can make contracts but has limited this power only to the extent of $ 10,000. Thus, an actual express authority is given to Ricardo. But, Ricardo violated his actual express authority and without telling the chief Executive Officer, he makes a contract with an outsider, Willow Landscaping, who has no idea that the authority of Ricardo to enter into contracts is limited to $ 10,000. Now, Ricardo makes a landscaping contract with Willow Landscaping for an amount of $ 13,000 along with extra cost of $ 4,000 which makes the total cost of the project at $ 17,000. Ricardo is not authorized to enter into contracts of such amounts. When the Chief Executive Officer asks about the project, Ricardo only tells him about the project and makes no mention to the extra cost. The Chief Executive Officer gave his approval and tells Willow Landscaping that it can take the project forward with Ricardo. Thus, by stating this information to Willow Landscaping, the Chief Executive Officer has actually given an apparent authority to Ricardo. Thus, Ricardo is now authorized to make a contract with Willow Landscaping which is approved by the Officer on behalf of the company. Conclusion Thus, the contract made by Ricardo with Willow Landscaping is binding in nature and is enforceable in law. Issue An advice is furnished to Aspirational Developments regarding Jeremy's conduct? Law As already submitted the relationship of an employer-employee or master-servant is very crucial mainly because it decides whether the employer or the master can be held accountable for the actions of his employee or servant. However, it is not always that the master is accountable for the actions of his servant. The servant is also under a scrutiny to conduct his actions in such manner so that he does not bring any disadvantage to his master. So there are several duties that are imposed on a servant. A servant or an agent should act like a trustworthily person and makes sure that no actions should be carried out by him which results in conflicting interest. If the interest conflicts then the interest of the master must proceed the interest of the servant. An agent must make sure that the confidential information received by him during the tenure of his service should not be given to any third party unless his principal has approved of the same. If the agent in order to bring gain to himself makes profits of secret nature then it is his duty to pay back such profits to his master. His acts must be such which are carried out with honesty, trustworthiness, diligence and care. He must act as per the wishes of his master. If these duties are not fulfilled by the agent then he must face consequences for the same. Application It is submitted that Jeremy is the estate agent of Aspirational Developments Pty Ltd and is selling high-rise units. He recently through one of his friends got the news that the other competitor is into difficulties and thus the units he is selling can be sold at higher cost. So, he secretly arrange funds and bought three units which he later sold and earn profits. It is submitted that these actions of Jeremy is in violation of his fiduciary duty, he also made secret profits which is not permitted. Also, there is conflict of interest and he preferred his own interest to be superior of the company. Further, he discloses the confidential information of the company for small payment and thus is in breach of is duty to not to disclose secret information of the company. Conclusion Thus, Jeremy is on violation of several of his duties and thus must compensate the company. Bibliography Books/articles/Journals Adams, Michael. Essential Corporate Law: Second Edition. Cavendish Australia, 2002. Hassall, Douglas. "Dal Pont: Law of Agency." International Trade and Business Law Review 429, 2003. Krawitz, Alan. "Protecting Outsiders to Corporate Contracts in Australia." Murdoch University Electronic Journal of Law, Volume 9, Number 3 (September 2002), 2002. Mccarthy, Luke. "Vicarious Liability In The Agency Context." Vol 4 No 2 (QUTLJJ), 2004. Case laws FreemanandLockyer v Buckhurst Park Properties(Mangal)Ltd 2 QB 480. Hely-Hutchinson v Brayhead Ltd.Hely-Hutchinson v Brayhead Ltd 1 QB 549. Industrial Development Consultants Ltd v Cooley 1 WLR 443. NMFM Property Pty Ltd v Citibank Ltd(No 10) (2000) 107 FCR 270. Re Smith and Fawcett Ltd.  Ch 304. Regal(Hastings)Ltd v Gulliver.Regal(Hastings)Ltd v Gulliver UKHL 1. Scott v Davis HCA 52. Union Bank of Australia Ltd vAlbert ErnestRudder HCA 39.